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INDIAN RAILWAYS

2020-01-30
INDIAN RAILWAYS

Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways. It manages the fourth largest railway network in the world by size, with a route length of 67,368-kilometre (41,861 mi) as of March 2017. About 50% of the routes are electrified with 25 kV 50 Hz AC electric traction while 33% of them are double or multi-tracked. In the year ending March 2018, IR carried 8.26 billion passengers and transported 1.16 billion tonnes of freight.[2] In the fiscal year 2017–18, IR is projected to have revenue of ₹1.874 trillion (US$26 billion), consisting of ₹1.175 trillion (US$16 billion) in freight revenue and ₹501.25 billion (US$7.0 billion) in passenger revenue, with an operating ratio of 96.0 percent.[2] Indian Railway (IR) runs more than 20,000 passenger trains daily, on both long-distance and suburban routes, from 7,349 stations across India.[3] The trains have five-digit and four-digit numbering system. Mail or Express trains, the most common types, run at an average speed of 50.6 kilometres per hour (31.4 mph).[6] Most premium passenger trains like Rajdhani, Shatabdi Exp run at peak speed of 140–150 km/h (87–93 mph) with Gatiman Express between New Delhi and Jhansi touching peak speed of 160 km/h (99 mph). Indian railways also runs indigenously built semi-high speed train called Vande Bharat (also known as Train-18)" between Delhi - Varanasi and Delhi - Katra which clocks a maximum track speed of 180 km/h (110 mph). In the freight segment, IR runs more than 9,200 trains daily. The average speed of freight trains is around 24 kilometres per hour (15 mph).[7] Maximum speed of freight trains varies from 60 to 75 km/h (37 to 47 mph) depending upon their axle load with container special running at a peak speed of 100 km/h (62 mph). As of March 2017, Indian Railways' rolling stock consisted of 277,987 freight wagons, 70,937 passenger coaches and 11,452 locomotives.[3] IR owns locomotive and coach-production facilities at several locations in India. Being the world's eighth-largest employer, it had 1.30 million employees as of March 2016.[3] The government has committed to electrify its entire rail network by 2023, and become a "net-zero railway" by 2030 The first railway proposals for India were made in Madras in 1832.[9] The country's first train, Red Hill Railway (built by Arthur Cotton to transport granite for road-building), ran from Red Hills to the Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837.[9] In 1845, the Godavari Dam Construction Railway was built by Cotton at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry, to supply stone for the construction of a dam over the Godavari River. In 1851, the Solani Aqueduct Railway was built by Proby Cautley in Roorkee to transport construction materials for an aqueduct over the Solani River.[9] India's first passenger train, hauled by three steam locomotives (Sahib, Sindh and Sultan), ran for 34 kilometres (21 mi) with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge track between Bori Bunder (Mumbai) and Thane on 16 April 1853.[10][11] The Thane viaducts, India's first railway bridges, were built over the Thane creek when the Mumbai-Thane line was extended to Kalyan in May 1854.[12] Eastern India's first passenger train ran 39 km (24 mi) from Howrah, near Kolkata, to Hoogly on 15 August 1854.[1] The first passenger train in South India ran 97 km (60 mi) from Royapuram- Veyasarapady (Madras) to Wallajah Road (Arcot) on 1 July 1856.[13] On 24 February 1873, a horse-drawn 3.8-kilometre (2.4 mi) tram opened in Calcutta between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat Street.[14] On 9 May 1874, a horse-drawn tramway began operation in Bombay between Colaba and Parel.[15] In 1897, lighting in passenger coaches was introduced by many railway companies. On 3 February 1925, the first electric passenger train in India ran between Victoria Terminus and Kurla.[16] The organization of Indian railways into regional zones began in 1951,[17] when the Southern (14 April 1951), Central (5 November 1951) and Western (5 November 1951) zones were created.[18] Fans and lights were mandated for all compartments in all passenger classes in 1951, and sleeping accommodations were introduced in coaches. In 1956, the first fully air-conditioned train was introduced between Howrah and Delhi.[19] Ten years later, the first containerized freight service began between Mumbai and Ahmedabad. In 1986, computerized ticketing and reservations were introduced in New Delhi.[20] In 1988, the first Shatabdi Express was introduced between New Delhi and Jhansi; it was later extended to Bhopal.[21] Two years later, the first self-printing ticket machine (SPTM) was introduced in New Delhi.[22] In 1993, air-conditioned three-tier coaches and a sleeper class (separate from second class) were introduced on IR. The CONCERT system of computerized reservations was deployed in New Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai in September 1996. In 1998, coupon validating machines (CVMs) were introduced at Mumbai Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus. The nationwide Concierge system began operation on 18 April 1999. In February 2000, the Indian Railways website went online.[23] On 3 August 2002, IR began online train reservations and ticketing.[24] Indian Railways announced on 31 March 2017 that the country's entire rail network would be electrified by 2022. Indian Railways is a vertically-integrated organization that produces majority of its locomotives & rolling stock at in-house production units, with a few recent exceptions. Locomotives: Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in Chittaranjan, West Bengal manufactures electric locomotives. Diesel Locomotive Works in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh manufactures diesel & electric locomotives. Diesel Locomotive Factory in Marhowra, Bihar. It's a Joint Venture of Indian Railways & General Electric. They manufacture high capacity diesel locomotives, used especially for freight transportation. Electric Locomotive Factory in Madhepura, Bihar. It's a Joint Venture of Indian Railways and Alstom SA. They manufacture electric locomotives. Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works in Patiala, Punjab upgrades & overhaul the locomotive. They also manufacture electric locomotives Rolling Stock: Integral Coach Factory in Chennai, Tamilnadu Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala, Punjab Modern Coach Factory in Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh Wheel & Axle: Rail Wheel Factory in Bangalore, Karnataka Rail Wheel Plant, Bela in Chhapra, Bihar The repair and maintenance of this vast fleet of rolling stock is carried out at 44 loco sheds, 212 carriage & wagon repair units and 45 periodic rs workshops located across various zones of IR